The Swiss Grid System — and the Dutch Total Grid (Richard P Lohse)

Richard Paul Lohse (1902-1988) was born in Zürich (Switzerland) in 1902. In 1918 he joined the advertising agency Max Dalang where he trained to be an advertising artist, but in his artistic career he started with figurative works and gradually moved to post-cubism style. Lohse worked for the Max Dalang agency until 1927, where he became interested in the international… Read more →

The Swiss Grid System — and the Dutch Total Grid (Max Bill)

Max Bill   Max Bill (1908–1994), was born in Winterthur, Switzerland. An architect, painter, typographer, industrial designer, engineer, sculptor, educator, and graphic designer, Bill was initially a student at the Kunstgewerbeschule and apprenticed as a silversmith before beginning his studies in 1927 at the Bauhaus in Dessau, Germany, with teachers such as Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, and Oskar Schlemmer. Bill… Read more →

The Swiss Grid System — and the Dutch Total Grid (Josef Müller Brockmann)

Introduction   After the second world war the Swiss Grid Style, also known as the International Typographic Style was developed by Swiss designers, such as Armin Hofmann, Josef Müller Brockmann, Max Bill, Richard P Lohse, Hans Neuberg, and Carlo Vivarelli who began to experiment with typography and photo-montage. Characterized by a cold, emotionally sterile grid style; they used structured layout,… Read more →

A History of the Comic Strips and the Underground Comix

Comic books have been the central staple of U.S. youth culture for nearly a century. As visual communication of cultural phenomena, they can tell us a great deal about what is considered to be important in the American culture, and how these values are manifested in various symbols, characters and events. They have been of fundamental importance in both shaping… Read more →

Modern Art and Propaganda

Max Pechstein (Germany, Zwickau, 1881 – 1955), Erwürgt nicht die junge Freiheit, Don’t Strangle Our Newborn Freedom, 1919 As the first world war drew to its bitter end, hunger and despair were rife throughout Germany. Military defeat and economic collapse were making themselves felt. Deserting soldiers roamed the streets and added to the chaos- The country was ripe for change.… Read more →

Traditional Graphic Design versus Digital Graphic Design

Now, instead of a mass audience consuming media from a single source, we have multiple sources, multiple channels and multiple audiences. Every participant is potentially a sender as well as a receiver of information, and the barrier to entry is no longer the fortune required to set up a TV station or a newspaper, but the price of a PC… Read more →

Pop Art – 1960

During  the1960s period, a powerful reaction against the established norms of the society was developing throughout the glob which was later dobbed  “the counterculture of the 1960s”.  The prolonged TV coverage of the U.S. military intervention in Vietnam, which for the first time could be observed in the living rooms along with the broadcasting of other social tensions including, colonial… Read more →